"As in my chapter on the politicization of patienthood, in this chapter on doctors’ narratives I show the possibility of resisting the power/knowledge nexus that Foucault called "biopower," this time from the doctor’s side of the binary. Deleuze and Guattari are interested not only in the ways in which power/knowledge operates but also in the minority discourses (like Foucault’s "subjugated knowledges") that can and do emerge not from beyond or behind the operations of power/knowledge, but from within it. This does not mean, however, that doctors become patients in reality, but that they are constantly becoming-patient through the process of desubjectification (a giving up of their identity as, or only as, doctor within the doctor-patient binary), deterritorialization (a movement away from the institutional spaces and practices of medicine that create distance rather than proximity between doctor and patient), and disarticulation (an unlearning of certain modern medical knowledges and practices cultivated in medical school). I consider the possibility of doctors’ becoming-infected and becoming-affected by their patients; again, not in reality, by HIV itself, but by their patients’ stories."Lisa Diedrich, Treatments: Language, Politics, and the Culture of Illness
Vials of Surfactant TA (Tokyo Akita), a modified sheep lung surfactant, brought back from Tetsuro Fujiwara’s lab at Akita University School of Medicine, Japan, by Mary Ellen Avery. Building off of Avery’s 1959 discovery that the cause of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in infants is the lack of surfactant in the lungs, Fujiwara became the first to successfully treat respiratory distress syndrome using surfactant replacement therapy."Sometimes defining issues as questions of technique or evidence masks the underlying political disputes… . But the political disputes are still there, even when they are addressed indirectly using the language of technique and evidence. Battles over income, turf, and the goals of medicine and policy lie just below the surface. Under these circumstances, evidence becomes an instrument of politics rather than a substitute for it."The Politics of Evidence-Based Medicine, by Marc A. Rodwin, Journal of health Politics, Policy, and Law, Vol. 26, No. 2, April 2001. Duke University Press
Fresco commissioned by Giovanni Alessandro Brambilla in the ceiling of Pavia anatomical theatre to celebrate the newly achieved parity between Surgery and Medicine.
Francisco Goya, Plague Hospital (1798)x)
Life cycle of the social amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum (100x)
Technique : Transmitted light
Dr. Dirk Dormann
MRC Clinical Sciences Centre Imperial College London
London, England, United Kingdom
Dorothy Wunmi Grigg
Goldsmiths University of London, United Kingdom
Cyber bullying is defined as a means of indirect aggression in which peers use electronics to taunt, insult, threaten, harass, and/or intimidate a peer (Raskauskas & Stoltz, 2007). It is classified as relational or indirect aggression because it is a deliberate attempt to inflict direct or indirect harm on peers through manipulation and damaging peer relationships (Berger, 2007). It encompasses non-physical attacks such as: teasing, telling lies, making fun of another, making rude or mean comments, spreading of rumors, or making threatening or aggressive comments towards another person. This new type of relational aggression of repeat humiliating gossip (Berger, 2007) is done using the Internet (web pages, instant messaging), text messages, picture messages, and any other form of technology in a negative way to indirectly or directly attack another person. Some examples are defaming web sites and online “slam books” (Raskauskas & Stoltz, 2007).
Johnson, J. M. (2009, March). The impact of cyber bullying: A new type of relational aggression.
Anonymity is considered a key motivator for cyber aggression, but few investigations have focused on the connection between anonymity and the subsequent engagement in aggression through the cyber context. The present longitudinal study utilized structural equation modeling to reveal indirect associations between two types of anonymity (i.e., punishment by authority figures and retaliation from the target) and later cyber aggression among 130 young adults. These relationships were examined through the influence of beliefs about not getting caught and not believing in the permanency of online content. Findings indicated that both forms of anonymity were related to cyber aggression 6 months later through two explanatory mechanisms (i.e., confidence with not getting caught and believing online content is not permanent), after controlling for gender and cyber aggression at Time 1. The implications of these findings are discussed, and an appeal for additional research investigating cyber aggression among young adults is given.